For more than two decades, Russian higher education has been undergoing fundamental restructuring that some experts compare to radical reforms of the Soviet communist regime in the 1920s. Currently, the Russian government is promoting its educational modernization to insure competitiveness of Russia in the global market. Proposed educational policies echo recommendations of the World Bank, the OECD, and the IMF, actively endorsing economic globalization and neo-liberal policies. As the market discourse came to dominate Russian state policy and practices, concerns for social justice have been replaced by the key economic concepts of competition and profit. In this book, Russian educational policies adopted between 1990 and 2006 are analyzed vis-à-vis economic and education related policies of the World Bank, the OECD, and the IMF. From an analytical framework combining globalization, welfare and neo-liberal state perspectives, the author identifies major policy discourses and establishes connections between proposals of the international agencies and the on-going educational modernization in Russia.
The Climate and Environmental Change, Political and Economical issues nowadays are forcing many countries to reconsider their way of energy production and consumption. Thus, the Russian Federation recently (2011) has completed major reconfiguration of the sector. This book is giving a comprehensive overview of the sector after the decade of restructuring. It determines political and economical development of the sector identifies technical capabilities, current and future energy matrix.Taking into the account, that the country has high amount of conventional resources, the author reviews energy efficiency potential and programs, capacities for penetration of innovative smart technologies and for expansion of environmentally friendly solutions for energy production and consumption. She also analyzes and concludes the range of technical and economical potential for renewable energy boost at the main land as well as at remote areas.As presented in the book, the result of the research gives a broad notion of possible directions of the Russian electricity sector development for the next 20 years.
This research deals with the problems of privatization in the context of two large transition economies. Despite their similarities, Russia and China adopted two very different strategies toward reforming their economic structure. Russian Federation launched the program of mass privatization of the state-owned enterprises, while People's Republic of China chose more gradual approach toward restructuring of the economy at large and its public sector in particular. In the years of the partial reform China demonstrated the high rate of economic growth, large inflow of Foreign Direct Investments and improvement of the performance of its state sector, while Russian economy experienced the prolonged and severe economic downturn with falling industrial production rate and hyperinflation.
The authors, leading representatives of Russian space research and industry, show the results and future prospects of astronautics at the start of the third millennium. The focus is on the development of astronautics in Russia under the new historical and economic conditions, but the book also covers the development in the USA, Europe, China, Japan, and India. It spotlights the basic trends in space related issues: necessary restructuring of space industry and spaceports, improvement of carrier rockets, booster units, spacecraft, and component elements. The book describes the possibilities of the wide use of space technologies and its numerous applications such as navigation and communication, space manufacturing, space biotechnology, pollution research, etc.Furthermore it contains a huge amount of facts described in an understandable way without requiring specialist knowledge, accompanied by many photographs, charts and diagrams, mostly in color. Therefore the book will be of interest to both experts and lay readers.
The book sheds new lights on the evolution of Russian space activities with a focus on their strategy of international cooperation. This analysis is carried out in relation to the evolution of the domestic and international dynamics that have been impacting the country's direction in space, with the ultimate goal of providing an assessment on their impact for current and foreseeable Europe-Russia space relations. Russia has traditionally been one of the two main strategic partners for Europe in its space endeavor. Hitherto, long-standing cooperation has been nurtured between the two actors in various areas, from scientific research to space transportation and human spaceflight. In recent years, however, a number of endogenous and exogenous developments has triggered significant changes in Russia's space posture. These changes are evident in the adjustment of Russia's space policies and programmatic goals, in the restructuring of the domestic space industry as well as in the attitude towards international space partnerships.
Project Report from the year 2007 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: keine, , language: English, abstract: An effective and democratic governance is one of the most challenging issues Russia is facing today. The complexity and multiplicity of the tasks a modern state has to deal with makes it impossible to provide an efficient public administration on a 'centralised base' - hence it is vitally important to guarantee the existence of local self-government and to create a transparent and workable legal framework for its performance. The rebirth of the local government in Russia and the beginning of its reform dates back to the early 1990s, when the country underwent economic and political restructuring. The Federal Law No. 131 passed in June, 2003 'On the General Organisational Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation' appeared to be the next crucial step and was expected to give more fiscal and managerial independence to municipalities. Local self-government has formally become a very widespread phenomenon and there are 24, 208 municipalities in Russia at the moment.1 However the goals of the reforms have not been achieved - local government institutions are still very weak and their participation in social and economic developments is very limited. There is an urgent need for new opportunities to improve this situation. A workable legal framework can be a key element in the development of the efficient self-government system. Two problems of municipal importance are the realisation of education, recreation and social work with children and youth at municipality (A.) and the public library service (B.): models of legal acts from European countries shall be described in order to transfer some of the solutions found in these countries. Thus, the Russian self-government can reach European standards.
This research paper on the restructuring of Russian sovereign debt was written under the aegis of the International Finance Seminar at Harvard Law School in 2004. The problem of excessive public debt is still prevalent in 2013, even developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and members of the European Union are experiencing severe hangovers after the financial crisis which showed the shortcomings of living in debt at the expense of future generations and creditors. Budget cuts and austerity steps have became household terms in many parts of the world. The experience of Russian sovereign debt restructuring in 1990s and early 2000s presents an interesting case for study. Russian external debt came down from the unsustainable burden of the early 1990s to a record low level of just 11% of GDP in 2012. This miracle can be accredited to high oil prices (which jumped from approximately US $20 per barrel in 1992 to almost US $100 per barrel in 2008), benefiting Russia greatly as one of the largest hydrocarbon exporters in the world, and the conservative spending policy of the Russian finance ministry which remembered well the huge budget deficits of 1990s.
This handbook covers the corporate law of about 50 jurisdictions worldwide: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, European Union, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, USA/General, USA/California, USA/Delaware, USA/New York. Each country report will be about 40 pages, following a common structure: Private companies with limited liability Public companies Regarding the companies the authors, by following a common questionnaire, cover all the relevant issues from foundation to liquidation and winding-up of a company. Dr Gerhard Wegen is a partner in Gleiss Lutz in Stuttgart, Professor of Law at the University of Tübingen, and one of Germany&#8217;s leading arbitration lawyers. Dr Andreas Spahlinger is a partner in Gleiss Lutz, Stuttgart; he heads the firm&#8217;s restructuring practice. Dr Marcel Barth is managing partner of the Hanover branch of Price Waterhouse Coopers. The authors work for well-known international law firms and are experts on the company law of their respective countries.
This book explores the long-term policy challenges in key areas of the Russian economy, including fiscal and monetary policy, the labor market, the financial sector, industrial restructuring, and the barter economy.