Russian language. Slavic languages, East Slavic languages, Rusyn language, Belarusian language, Ukrainian language Dialectology, Balachka, German- Russian pidgin, Finnmark, Romanization of Russian, Russian orthography, Russian phonology, Russian grammar, History of the Russian language, Reforms of Russian orthography.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Russian orthography ( , pravopisaniye, Russian pronunciation: [ prav p san j ]) is formally considered to encompass spelling ( , orfografiya, [ orf raf j ]) and punctuation ( , punktuatsiya, [p nktu ats j ]). Russian spelling, which is quite phonemic in practice, is a mix of the morphological and phonetic principles, with a few etymological or historic forms, and occasional grammatical differentiation. The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reformulated on the French and German models. NOTE: The IPA transcription attempts to reflect vowel reduction when not under stress. The sounds that are presented are those of the standard language, other dialects may have noticeably different pronunciation for the vowels.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Tlingit language has been recorded in a number of orthographies over the two hundred years since European contact. The first transcriptions of Tlingit were done by Russian Orthodox ministers, hence they were in the Cyrillic alphabet. A hiatus in writing Tlingit occurred subsequent to the purchase of Alaska by the United States due to the policies implemented by Presbyterian reverend and territorial educational commissioner Sheldon Jackson, who believed that the use of indigenous languages should be suppressed in favor of English. American and German anthropologists began recording Tlingit in various linguistic transcriptions from the 1890s onward, and there exists a small body of literature and a large amount of vocabulary recorded in these transcriptions. With the work of two linguists from the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Gillian Story and Constance Naish, the first complete orthography for Tlingit began to spread in the 1960s.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Old Russian language adopted the Cyrillic alphabet, approximately during the tenth century and at about the same time as the introduction of Eastern Christianity into the territories inhabited by the Eastern Slavs. An earlier rune-like and possibly syllabic script was simultaneously discarded, and so thoroughly discouraged that today there are no uncontested specimens of it in existence. In this way, no sharp distinction was drawn between the vernacular language and the liturgical, though the latter was based on South Slavic rather than Eastern Slavic norms. As the language evolved, several letters, notably the yuses were gradually and unsystematically discarded from both secular and church usage over the next centuries, and not one of several attempts at linguistic standardisation properly succeeded.
Tatars from the Golden Horde settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th–16th centuries. By descent they were Turco-Mongols, by religion Muslim. Within a few generations they lost their native language(s) and spoke only Belarusian and Polish. In order to record and hand on the essentials of their faith they translated essential religious works into Belarusian Polish. These languages were normally written in the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets – ‘Christian’ scripts and so unsuitable for Islamic texts. The Tatars therefore devised their own system of orthography, using Arabic letters to convey the phonology of the Slav languages. They also created a religious vocabulary that was suited to the expression of Islamic ideas. For general ethical concepts they drew on Belarusian and Polish, but for terms relating to Islamic doctrine and practice they used Arabic loanwords, ‘Slavicising’ them morphologically and phonetically. This linguistic fusion represents a remarkable cultural monument of Islam in Europe. The first part of the present work traces the six-hundred year history of the Tatars in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania – a territory now divided between Belarus, Lithuania and Poland. It draws on a wide range of sources, including contemporary accounts in Latin, Old Russian, medieval French, Polish, Italian and Turkish. The second part consists of a detailed study of a Tatar manuscript (Kitab) held in the British Library. Extracts of such manuscripts have previously appeared in print, but this is the first full-length examination of a Tatar text. The main language is Belarusian (mixed standard and dialect forms), and in places heavily Polonized.A CD-ROM with a Latin-script transliteration of the entire Belarusian-Polish British Library Kitab is included in the sleeve of the book.
Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Bielefeld University, course: English as a Global Lingua Franca, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The approach of this paper is it to present the Mennonite Low German dialect and to develop an easily intelligible orthography for the mentioned dialect. In the first point the roots of the Low German dialect under examination are highlighted and it is shown that it belongs to the same family as the English language. Both varieties belong to the Indo-European languages or, more precisely, to its West-Germanic branch. Then, point two explains where the term Mennonite Low German comes from by unrolling the history of the Mennonites, their moves and their linguistic history. In terms of definition there is a further question that has to be tackled, namely whether Mennonite Low German is a language or a dialect. This question will be discussed in point three, bearing in mind the four criteria Petyt names to decide whether a variety is a language or a dialect. After having explained and linguistically discussed the term Mennonite Low German, I present my grandmother's short story and use it to develop Mennonite Low German orthography, which will be expounded in the fifth paragraph. The mentioned paragraph is subdivided into four points, of which the first one discusses Mennonite Low German orthography, its tries and problems. As most of the Mennonite Low German speakers are familiar with High German (but not with other Low German dialects), the Mennonite Low German orthography presented in this paper will follow several characteristics of German orthography, when considered as useful. Moreover, a short sketch of Mennonite Low German phonology and morphology will be provided in the following subparagraph in order to round off the topic. A short overview of the variations of the dialect under examination can be found in point 5.3; namely the Molotschna and the Old Colony accents. The last subparagraph deals with Mennonite Low German loan words and recent word formation. This variety contains several loan words that come from Dutch, Russian or German, for example. Paragraph number six explains the death of a former Lingua Franca, which Low German had been at the time of the Hanseatic League. The decline of Low German might also explain the underestimation of its dialect Mennonite Low German.
This book describes and systematizes all aspects of the grammar of Russian: the patterns of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, word order, and intonation. It also refers to literature on variation and trends in the development of Russian, and makes use of contemporary data from the internet.
The first Russian translation of 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' appeared in Moscow in 1879, fourteen years after the publication of original. It bore the title 'Sonja in a Kingdom of Wonder' and was printed by Mamonov's Press. The text was printed in Old Russian orthography, using the old letters (that is, ¿, ¿, ¿ after consonant endings, etc.) that were annihilated or changed for the present ones early in the twentieth century. No name of the author, illustrator, or translator appeared on the title page, and the identity of the translator is to this day a matter of speculation. There are now many Russian translations of 'Alice', but 'Sonja' is the first, and the only one done within Carroll's lifetime, presumably with his knowledge, and there by must be accorded a place of honour in the canon. This book has been published in two editions: a limited hardcover black-and-white facsimile printed for the Lewis Carroll Society of North America, and this paperback colour facsimile, part of Evertype's ever-growing set of translations of the 'Alice' books.